Reasoning is considered to be the faculty that allows human beings to solve problems, draw conclusions and consciously learn from facts, establishing cause and effect connections and necessary logical connections between all actions or thoughts.

This means that reasoning is inherent to each human being and that each individual handles it according to their mental capacities and physical conditions, so the possibility of expanding it is considered, if appropriate practices or training are followed, such as developing exercises or related tests.

Based on the previous appraisals, we find different types of classifications given to reasoning, depending on the point of view of the person who analyzes it and the purpose that he persues with its particular diversification.

In general, it could be said that the reasoning is grouped into:
1- Inductive and deductive
2- Logical and mathematical
3- Verbal
4- Abstract (Non-verbal)

Inductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning is a type of initial argument that identifies patterns of behavior or experiences, which are considered to be true, from which a general conclusion is drawn.

This inductive behavior is what leads to scientific research, whose purpose is to understand the laws that govern reality. Inductive reasoning can also be used to make predictions.

Deductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning is a type of argument in which a general premise leads to a specific conclusion.

In some classifications, inductive and deductive reasoning are considered as one, although it is argued that deductive ones are simple truths that must be reached without much effort.

Within deductive reasoning we find syllogisms.

Logical and Mathematical Reasoning

Mathematical logical reasoning is the mental ability related to abstract thinking and the way the numbers or quantities represented are seen and the ability to perform operations with them. In this reasoning, the elements are identified, the way in which they are related is sought and the thought is closed with the corresponding operation between them, which will be the conclusion or response to the proposed statements.

Verbal Reasoning

It is the discipline that allows the speaker to make appropriate use of the languages he uses and the correct processing of the information he receives. Thus, he not only learns to use his language properly and fluently, but also facilitates scientific activity with greater intellectual solvency. For this reason, verbal reasoning is also called verbal aptitude, because its essence involves the development of those natural abilities that every human being possesses.

Abstract Reasoning

The ability to analyze information and solve problems on a complex, thought-based level.
Abstract reasoning constitutes non-verbal reasoning, basically grouped into inductive reasoning, spatial reasoning, logical reasoning and diagrammatic reasoning.

Abstract reasoning tasks involve skills such as:

* Forming theories about the nature of objects, ideas, processes, and problem solving;

* Understanding subjects on a complex level through complex analysis and evaluation; and

* Ability to apply knowledge in problem-solving using theory, metaphor, or complex analogy.

Assorted Reasoning Exercises

By: Omar Castaño P. ©

We have neglected these simple exercises many times, just because we do not understand them.

Take into account...

To find the answer fastly, it is IMPORTANT you analyze each element separately and at the same time, as a part of a group.

Any exercise on reasoning follows a pattern:
In the case of numbers, they set their key using mathematical operations. For example, a series may be formed with even numbers; another series can add or subtract an amount to achieve the next box. The combination of mathematical operations is also used in a series of numbers, such as multiplying in the first element and then dividing in the second one, and so on.
When geometric figures are used in tests on reasoning, they create their working pattern changing colors, positions or shapes. When several figures go in one box, they can follow their own move or change their function depending on another figure.

So, each series follows its own pattern.

Exercise 1 (With a single element)

To begin understanding them, here is a little example:

Replace the box with the question marks (???) by one of the three on the right side (a, b, c).

In the first square, the arrow points to the bottom-right corner;

in the second square, the arrow points to the bottom-left one;

in the third box, the arrow points to the top-left corner.

We can conclude the arrow is turning clockwise from corner to corner.

ex 1

Therefore, the box with the question marks will be changed by the one indicated with the letter "c": the arrow points to the top-right corner.

Exercise 2 (Two elements)

We used two different elements: an arrow and a star.

The Star:

In the first square, the star is up-right.

In the second one, the star is down-left.

In the third square, the star is up-right again.

So, in the fourth square, the star will be down-left again.

Now, the arrow:

In the first square, the arrow is pointing to the centre-right side.

In the second one, the arrow is pointing to the down-right corner.

In the third square, it is pointing to the centre-down side.

So, in the fourth square, the arrow will be pointing to the down-left corner.

ex 2

The answer is the one indicated by letter "a".

Exercises using Numbers

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